The Complete Lojban Language

John Woldemar Cowan

A Logical Language Group Publication

Version 1.1, Generated 2016-08-26

Table of Contents

1. Lojban As We Mangle It In Lojbanistan: About This Book
1.1. What is Lojban?
1.2. What is this book?
1.3. What are the typographical conventions of this book?
1.4. Disclaimers
1.5. Acknowledgements and Credits
1.6. Informal Bibliography
1.7. Captions to Pictures
1.8. Boring Legalities
2. A Quick Tour of Lojban Grammar, With Diagrams
2.1. The concept of the bridi
2.2. Pronunciation
2.3. Words that can act as sumti
2.4. Some words used to indicate selbri relations
2.5. Some simple Lojban bridi
2.6. Variant bridi structure
2.7. Varying the order of sumti
2.8. The basic structure of longer utterances
2.9. tanru
2.10. Description sumti
2.11. Examples of brivla
2.12. The sumti di'u and la'e di'u
2.13. Possession
2.14. Vocatives and commands
2.15. Questions
2.16. Indicators
2.17. Tenses
2.18. Lojban grammatical terms
3. The Hills Are Alive With The Sounds Of Lojban
3.1. Orthography
3.2. Basic Phonetics
3.3. The Special Lojban Characters
3.4. Diphthongs and Syllabic Consonants
3.5. Vowel Pairs
3.6. Consonant Clusters
3.7. Initial Consonant Pairs
3.8. Buffering Of Consonant Clusters
3.9. Syllabication And Stress
3.10. IPA For English Speakers
3.11. English Analogues For Lojban Diphthongs
3.12. Oddball Orthographies
4. The Shape Of Words To Come: Lojban Morphology
4.1. Introductory
4.2. cmavo
4.3. brivla
4.4. gismu
4.5. lujvo
4.6. rafsi
4.7. fu'ivla
4.8. cmene
4.9. Rules for inserting pauses
4.10. Considerations for making lujvo
4.11. The lujvo-making algorithm
4.12. The lujvo scoring algorithm
4.13. lujvo-making examples
4.14. The gismu creation algorithm
4.15. Cultural and other non-algorithmic gismu
4.16. rafsi fu'ivla: a proposal
5. Pretty Little Girls' School: The Structure Of Lojban selbri
5.1. Lojban content words: brivla
5.2. Simple tanru
5.3. Three-part tanru grouping with bo
5.4. Complex tanru grouping
5.5. Complex tanru with ke and ke'e
5.6. Logical connection within tanru
5.7. Linked sumti: be-bei-be'o
5.8. Inversion of tanru: co
5.9. Other kinds of simple selbri
5.10. selbri based on sumti: me
5.11. Conversion of simple selbri
5.12. Scalar negation of selbri
5.13. Tenses and bridi negation
5.14. Some types of asymmetrical tanru
5.15. Some types of symmetrical tanru
5.16. Pretty little girls' school: forty ways to say it
6. To Speak Of Many Things: The Lojban sumti
6.1. The five kinds of simple sumti
6.2. The three basic description types
6.3. Individuals and masses
6.4. Masses and sets
6.5. Descriptors for typical objects
6.6. Quantified sumti
6.7. Quantified descriptions
6.8. Indefinite descriptions
6.9. sumti-based descriptions
6.10. sumti qualifiers
6.11. The syntax of vocative phrases
6.12. Lojban names
6.13. Pro-sumti summary
6.14. Quotation summary
6.15. Number summary
7. Brevity Is The Soul Of Language: Pro-sumti And Pro-bridi
7.1. What are pro-sumti and pro-bridi? What are they for?
7.2. Personal pro-sumti: the mi-series
7.3. Demonstrative pro-sumti: the ti-series
7.4. Utterance pro-sumti: the di'u-series
7.5. Assignable pro-sumti and pro-bridi: the ko'a-series and the broda-series
7.6. Anaphoric pro-sumti and pro-bridi: the ri-series and the go'i-series
7.7. Indefinite pro-sumti and pro-bridi: the zo'e-series and the co'e-series
7.8. Reflexive and reciprocal pro-sumti: the vo'a-series
7.9. sumti and bridi questions: ma and mo
7.10. Relativized pro-sumti: ke'a
7.11. Abstraction focus pro-sumti: ce'u
7.12. Bound variable pro-sumti and pro-bridi: the da-series and the bu'a-series
7.13. Pro-sumti and pro-bridi cancelling
7.14. The identity predicate: du
7.15. lujvo based on pro-sumti
7.16. KOhA cmavo by series
7.17. GOhA and other pro-bridi by series
7.18. Other cmavo discussed in this chapter
8. Relative Clauses, Which Make sumti Even More Complicated
8.1. What are you pointing at?
8.2. Incidental relative clauses
8.3. Relative phrases
8.4. Multiple relative clauses: zi'e
8.5. Non-veridical relative clauses: voi
8.6. Relative clauses and descriptors
8.7. Possessive sumti
8.8. Relative clauses and complex sumti: vu'o
8.9. Relative clauses in vocative phrases
8.10. Relative clauses within relative clauses
8.11. Index of relative clause cmavo
9. To Boston Via The Road Go I, With An Excursion Into The Land Of Modals
9.1. Introductory
9.2. Standard bridi form: cu
9.3. Tagging places: FA
9.4. Conversion: SE
9.5. Modal places: FIhO, FEhU
9.6. Modal tags: BAI
9.7. Modal sentence connection: the causals
9.8. Other modal connections
9.9. Modal selbri
9.10. Modal relative phrases; Comparison
9.11. Mixed modal connection
9.12. Modal conversion: JAI
9.13. Modal negation
9.14. Sticky modals
9.15. Logical and non-logical connection of modals
9.16. CV'V cmavo of selma'o BAI with irregular forms
9.17. Complete table of BAI cmavo with rough English equivalents
10. Imaginary Journeys: The Lojban Space/Time Tense System
10.1. Introductory
10.2. Spatial tenses: FAhA and VA
10.3. Compound spatial tenses
10.4. Temporal tenses: PU and ZI
10.5. Interval sizes: VEhA and ZEhA
10.6. Vague intervals and non-specific tenses
10.7. Dimensionality: VIhA
10.8. Movement in space: MOhI
10.9. Interval properties: TAhE and roi
10.10. Event contours: ZAhO and re'u
10.11. Space interval modifiers: FEhE
10.12. Tenses as sumti tcita
10.13. Sticky and multiple tenses: KI
10.14. Story time
10.15. Tenses in subordinate bridi
10.16. Tense relations between sentences
10.17. Tensed logical connectives
10.18. Tense negation
10.19. Actuality, potentiality, capability: CAhA
10.20. Logical and non-logical connections between tenses
10.21. Sub-events
10.22. Conversion of sumti tcita: JAI
10.23. Tenses versus modals
10.24. Tense questions: cu'e
10.25. Explicit magnitudes
10.26. Finally (an exercise for the much-tried reader)
10.27. Summary of tense selma'o
10.28. List of spatial directions and direction-like relations
11. Events, Qualities, Quantities, And Other Vague Words: On Lojban Abstraction
11.1. The syntax of abstraction
11.2. Event abstraction
11.3. Types of event abstractions
11.4. Property abstractions
11.5. Amount abstractions
11.6. Truth-value abstraction: jei
11.7. Predication/sentence abstraction
11.8. Indirect questions
11.9. Minor abstraction types
11.10. Lojban sumti raising
11.11. Event-type abstractors and event contour tenses
11.12. Abstractor connection
11.13. Table of abstractors
12. Dog House And White House: Determining lujvo Place Structures
12.1. Why have lujvo?
12.2. The meaning of tanru: a necessary detour
12.3. The meaning of lujvo
12.4. Selecting places
12.5. Symmetrical and asymmetrical lujvo
12.6. Dependent places
12.7. Ordering lujvo places.
12.8. lujvo with more than two parts.
12.9. Eliding SE rafsi from seltau
12.10. Eliding SE rafsi from tertau
12.11. Eliding KE and KEhE rafsi from lujvo
12.12. Abstract lujvo
12.13. Implicit-abstraction lujvo
12.14. Anomalous lujvo
12.15. Comparatives and superlatives
12.16. Notes on gismu place structures
13. Oooh! Arrgh! Ugh! Yecch! Attitudinal and Emotional Indicators
13.1. What are attitudinal indicators?
13.2. Pure emotion indicators
13.3. Propositional attitude indicators
13.4. Attitudes as scales
13.5. The space of emotions
13.6. Emotional categories
13.7. Attitudinal modifiers
13.8. Compound indicators
13.9. The uses of indicators
13.10. Attitude questions; empathy; attitude contours
13.11. Evidentials
13.12. Discursives
13.13. Miscellaneous indicators
13.14. Vocative scales
13.15. A sample dialogue
13.16. Tentative conclusion
14. If Wishes Were Horses: The Lojban Connective System
14.1. Logical connection and truth tables
14.2. The Four basic vowels
14.3. The six types of logical connectives
14.4. Logical connection of bridi
14.5. Forethought bridi connection
14.6. sumti connection
14.7. More than two propositions
14.8. Grouping of afterthought connectives
14.9. Compound bridi
14.10. Multiple compound bridi
14.11. Termset logical connection
14.12. Logical connection within tanru
14.13. Truth questions and connective questions
14.14. Non-logical connectives
14.15. More about non-logical connectives
14.16. Interval connectives and forethought non-logical connection
14.17. Logical and non-logical connectives within mekso
14.18. Tenses, modals, and logical connection
14.19. Abstractor connection and connection within abstractions
14.20. Constructs and appropriate connectives
14.21. Truth functions and corresponding logical connectives
14.22. Rules for making logical and non-logical connectives
14.23. Locations of other tables
15. No Problems: On Lojban Negation
15.1. Introductory
15.2. bridi negation
15.3. Scalar Negation
15.4. selbri and tanru negation
15.5. Expressing scales in selbri negation
15.6. sumti negation
15.7. Negation of minor grammatical constructs
15.8. Truth questions
15.9. Affirmations
15.10. Metalinguistic negation forms
15.11. Summary – Are All Possible Questions About Negation Now Answered?
16. Who Did You Pass On The Road? Nobody: Lojban And Logic
16.1. What's wrong with this picture?
16.2. Existential claims, prenexes, and variables
16.3. Universal claims
16.4. Restricted claims: da poi
16.5. Dropping the prenex
16.6. Variables with generalized quantifiers
16.7. Grouping of quantifiers
16.8. The problem of any
16.9. Negation boundaries
16.10. bridi negation and logical connectives
16.11. Using naku outside a prenex
16.12. Logical Connectives and DeMorgan's Law
16.13. selbri variables
16.14. A few notes on variables
16.15. Conclusion
17. As Easy As A-B-C? The Lojban Letteral System And Its Uses
17.1. What's a letteral, anyway?
17.2. A to Z in Lojban, plus one
17.3. Upper and lower cases
17.4. The universal bu
17.5. Alien alphabets
17.6. Accent marks and compound lerfu words
17.7. Punctuation marks
17.8. What about Chinese characters?
17.9. lerfu words as pro-sumti
17.10. References to lerfu
17.11. Mathematical uses of lerfu strings
17.12. Acronyms
17.13. Computerized character codes
17.14. List of all auxiliary lerfu-word cmavo
17.15. Proposed lerfu words – introduction
17.16. Proposed lerfu words for the Greek alphabet
17.17. Proposed lerfu words for the Cyrillic alphabet
17.18. Proposed lerfu words for the Hebrew alphabet
17.19. Proposed lerfu words for some accent marks and multiple letters
17.20. Proposed lerfu words for radio communication
18. lojbau mekso: Mathematical Expressions in Lojban
18.1. Introductory
18.2. Lojban numbers
18.3. Signs and numerical punctuation
18.4. Special numbers
18.5. Simple infix expressions and equations
18.6. Forethought operators (Polish notation, functions)
18.7. Other useful selbri for mekso bridi
18.8. Indefinite numbers
18.9. Approximation and inexact numbers
18.10. Non-decimal and compound bases
18.11. Special mekso selbri
18.12. Number questions
18.13. Subscripts
18.14. Infix operators revisited
18.15. Vectors and matrices
18.16. Reverse Polish notation
18.17. Logical and non-logical connectives within mekso
18.18. Using Lojban resources within mekso
18.19. Other uses of mekso
18.20. Explicit operator precedence
18.21. Miscellany
18.22. Four score and seven: a mekso problem
18.23. mekso selma'o summary
18.24. Complete table of VUhU cmavo, with operand structures
18.25. Complete table of PA cmavo: digits, punctuation, and other numbers.
18.26. Table of MOI cmavo, with associated rafsi and place structures
19. Putting It All Together: Notes on the Structure of Lojban Texts
19.1. Introductory
19.2. Sentences: I
19.3. Paragraphs: NIhO
19.4. Topic-comment sentences: ZOhU
19.5. Questions and answers
19.6. Subscripts: XI
19.7. Utterance ordinals: MAI
19.8. Attitude scope markers: FUhE/FUhO
19.9. Quotations: LU, LIhU, LOhU, LEhU
19.10. More on quotations: ZO, ZOI
19.11. Contrastive emphasis: BAhE
19.12. Parenthesis and metalinguistic commentary: TO, TOI, SEI
19.13. Erasure: SI, SA, SU
19.14. Hesitation: Y
19.15. No more to say: FAhO
19.16. List of cmavo interactions
19.17. List of Elidable Terminators
20. A Catalogue of selma'o
20.1. A Catalogue Of selma'o
21. Formal Grammars
21.1. EBNF Grammar of Lojban
21.2. EBNF Cross-Reference
Lojban Word Glossary
General Index
Lojban Words Index
Examples Index