6.11. The syntax of vocative phrases

Vocative phrases are not sumti, but are explained in this chapter because their syntax is very similar to that of sumti. Grammatically, a vocative phrase is one of the so-called free modifiers of Lojban, along with subscripts, parentheses, and various other constructs explained in Chapter 19. They can be placed after many, but not all, constructions of the grammar: in general, after any elidable terminator (which, however, must not then be elided!), at the beginnings and ends of sentences, and in many other places.

The purpose of a vocative phrase is to indicate who is being addressed, or to indicate to that person that he or she ought to be listening. A vocative phrase begins with a cmavo of selma'o COI or DOI, all of which are explained in more detail in Section 13.14. Sometimes that is all there is to the phrase:

Example 6.62. 



Example 6.63. 




In these cases, the person being addressed is obvious from the context. However, a vocative word (more precisely, one or more cmavo of COI, possibly followed by doi, or else just doi by itself) can be followed by one of several kinds of phrases, all of which are intended to indicate the addressee. The most common case is a name:

Example 6.64. 

coi. djan.
[greetings] John.

Hello, John.

A pause is required (for morphological reasons) between a member of COI and a name. You can use doi instead of a pause:

Example 6.65. 

coi doi djan.
[greetings] O John.

Hello, John.

means exactly the same thing and does not require a pause. Using doi by itself is like just saying someone's name to attract his or her attention:

Example 6.66. 

doi djan.
O John.


In place of a name, a description may appear, lacking its descriptor, which is understood to be le:

Example 6.67. 

coi xunre pastu nixli
Hello, (red-type-of dress)-type-of girl.

Hello, girl with the red dress!

The listener need not really be a xunre pastu nixli, as long as she understands herself correctly from the description. (Actually, only a bare selbri can appear; explicit quantifiers are forbidden in this form of vocative, so the implicit quantifiers su'o le ro are in effect.)

Finally, a complete sumti may be used, the most general case.

Example 6.68. 

co'o la bab. .e la noras.
[partings] that-named Bob and that-named Nora.

Goodbye, Bob and Nora.

Example 6.67 is thus the same as:

Example 6.69. 

coi le xunre pastu nixli
Hello, the-one-described-as (red-type-of dress)-type-of girl!

and Example 6.66 is the same as:

Example 6.70. 

doi la djan.
O that-named John!

Finally, the elidable terminator for vocative phrases is do'u (of selma'o DOhU), which is rarely needed except when a simple vocative word is being placed somewhere within a bridi. It may also be required when a vocative is placed between a sumti and its relative clause, or when there are a sequence of so-called free modifiers (vocatives, subscripts, utterance ordinals – see Chapter 18 – metalinguistic comments – see Section 19.12 – or reciprocals – see Chapter 19) which must be properly separated.

The meaning of a vocative phrase that is within a sentence is not affected by its position in the sentence: thus Example 6.70 and Example 6.71 mean the same thing:

Example 6.71. 

doi djan. ko klama mi
O John you [imperative] go-to me.

John, come to me!

Example 6.72. 

ko klama mi doi djan.
You [imperative] go-to me O John.

Come to me, John!

As usual for this chapter, the full syntax of vocative phrases has not been explained: relative clauses, discussed in Chapter 8, make for more possibilities.